Nuremburg Trials  
























Nuremburg trials

This event took place after World War II where 23 Nazis were put on trial. The Nazis were the major leaders of the party whose incorporation on the acts was from their choice. Four counts were tried for on these leaders; war crimes, conspiracy, crimes against humanity and membership in a criminal organization. The crimes committed by the Nazis were directed at people of Jewish faith and Russians. The count that was mainly counted was crime against humanity; victims of the experiments were the mentally retarded, people with physical handicaps and the mentally ill. Sixteen of the 23 put on trial were found guilty and seven out of sixteen convicted were sentenced to execution.

Use of humans as a research subjects has brought concern into the scientific community. This has led to factors that regulate such research studies among them being undue enducement, limiting coercion and vulnerability of the population of the subjects in the study. To overcome these issues, many guidelines have been implemented to ensure safety of the research subjects. Vulnerable groups of people have been offered special services and protection within healthcare. The CIOMS international Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research considers ‘vulnerable persons’ as people who cannot protect their own interests. This could be caused by intelligence, education insufficient power among others. These guidelines protect the rights and welfare of any vulnerable persons by demanding justifications for involving such persons in research.

It is important for individuals in healthcare and the researchers to make sure that resources are properly allocated to guarantee special protections and benefits are given to those who required it. Vulnerability has brought an argument in its value as a factor in the distribution of resources and the importance in principle of bioethics.

Ethical considerations have become so important in scientific research for many years. It has brought a clear understanding of the needs in the society. It has resulted to clear definition of the vulnerable persons thus promoting equal distribution of resources. It has also promoted humanity among the individuals which contributes to peace and unity in a nation.

Nuremberg trial has made it evident for the need of code of ethics in considering the protection of human research subjects. People should not only look at the favors without considering all people should be treated equally. Generally it can be concluded that ethical consideration has brought hope in meeting ones expectations and being committed in operating responsibly and sustainably












Patel, H., Arya, M., & Shergill, I. S. (2007). Basic science techniques in clinical practice.   London: Springer.




  1. The study aimed at establishing the strategies employed in the exclusive degree program offered at Charles Sturt University (In the field of mental health) that helped ensure sustained attendance to the program.
  2. The study aimed at identifying and addressing any barriers to student retention.
  3. The study aimed to empower indigenous students by better preparing them for the University environment.
  4. Finally, the study also aimed at informing academics within the course of various areas that needed to be improved on to ensure the program offered a more culturally innocuous learning environment.


  1. The qualitative method is appropriate because the study does not seek to establish one objective truth, but seeks to explore a number of relationships.
  2. The relationships the study seeks to explore are not measurable.
  3. The study aimed at exploring meanings and experiences, making the use of a qualitative design necessary.

Part 2

The researchers used focus group discussions. This was an appropriate method, considering that the collection of data, or research was not the only aim of the study. The method would allow for the participants to contribute towards the development of strategies that generate and create a culturally safe environment that encourages the indigenous student population to remain in the program. Furthermore, such forums would also provide wonderful opportunities through which the research team could actively try and prepare the participants for the University environment. Finally, such discussions would offer the students a forum through which to communicate freely with the academics, albeit indirectly, regarding aspects of the program they were uncomfortable with.

Part 3

  1. Ownership: The indigenous students felt threatened by the presence of a non-indigenous student in their class and the increasing participation of non-indigenous students in their classes and in programs meant for the indigenous students. In addition, they felt that the presence of these non-indigenous students threatened their cultural safety, as the class sessions in most cases involved the sharing of personal information they did not feel comfortable sharing in the presence of the non-indigenous students.
  2. Working Together: The group felt that their sense of togetherness and belonging made them stronger individually, and more comfortable to express themselves and their unique culture. They felt that being in the program together allowed them to relax and be themselves.

Part 4

The research and its findings are very important, especially when one considers the numerous insights it offered towards understanding the increasing gaps between the indigenous and no-indigenous community in terms of education, health and economic status. The study highlights important cultural and country differences that are likely to influence the health seeking behaviors of the indigenous community. The study highlighted the importance the indigenous community places on cultural safety, a lesson that if adopted within the health sector, could imply an urgent need to rank cultural safety high amongst the list of priorities when dealing with individuals who belong to the indigenous community. The study also highlights the best environment within which to educate the indigenous population, thereby improving its health seeking behaviors. The first step would no doubt be to create an environment within which they feel comfortable enough, perhaps by utilizing the available population of indigenous health educators to reach out to the rest of the population within a safe environment. Finally, the study also highlights the importance of making the development of any potential solutions an all-inclusive process, such that any community health projects implemented within the population are developed in a consultative and inclusive manner, to ensure community participation and adoption.














Rigby, W. et al. (2011) ‘Closing the Gap: Cultural safety in Indigenous health education,’ Contemporary Nurse (2011) 37(1): 21–30.







  1. A stationary pole-vaulter contains potential energy due to its position (the pole-vaulter is motionless).When it starts to run, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. The pole-vaulter maintains this type of energy until it hits the ground. On hitting the ground, due to the impact of the pole and the ground heat is produced. Therefore, kinetic is converted to thermal energy. The impact is so strong that that makes the pole to bend. The act of bending shows the some work is done on the pole-vaulter to enable it to bend hence the thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy..Mechanical energy is then converted to kinetic energy as the pole-vaulter moves in attempt to straighten and in rising into the air. When it stops moving upwards, the kinetic energy of pole-vaulter is converted to potential energy. When it starts to move down, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. On landing the ground, the pole-vaulter hits the ground and produces heat. This means that kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy .This thermal energy is then converted into potential energy
  2. The assumption made here is that as the student jumps up and moves down, force due to viscosity of air is negligible.

The student starts to move down on reaching the highest height and starts moving down with an initial velocity of zero meters per second






The total distance moved downwards is 4m+0.7 m=4.7m,         S==0 ,   g=9.8m/s , U=0 m/s

where S-distance, U- Initial velocity, V- Final velocity, M- Mass, g- Acceleration due to gravity and t- Time

Using the equation,



4.7 X2 =,



t=  seconds

Using the equation V=U + gt

V=0+9.8()    =9.8 () m/s

=   9.8 m/s

3 (a)      State your values from the Activity 6.1 experiment for:

Power rating, P, of kettle= 2.1 kW

Mass, m, of water in kettle =1.50 kg

Starting temperature 4 °C=277k

Finishing temperature=373k

Time interval, t, for heating= 5.22 seconds










3(c) An S104 student carried out the Activity 6.1 experiment. Instead of using scales, the experiment was modified to use a measuring jug to pour a known volume of water into the kettle (see comments on Activity 6.1, Task 1). The water and kettle were left in a refrigerator overnight; the refrigerator was set at the recommended level and so the water temperature was assumed to be 4 °C. It was assumed that the temperature of the water at the point at which it boiled vigorously was 100 °C. The student’s amended and partially completed Table 6.3 is

given below.

Measurement Result Comments
volume of water in kettle 1.50 litres

(1.50 × 10−3 m3)

divisions on measuring jug

every 0.05 litres, but some water

‘lost’ on transfer to kettle

mass, m, of water in kettle 1.50 kg assuming the density of water

to be

1000 kg m−3,

i.e. 1.000 kg litre−1

power rating, P, of kettle 2.1 kW given on base of kettle as 2.0–

2.2 kW

starting time (power on) 6:25:00 measured by a digital wall clock

with divisions every second

finishing time (power off)


6:30:22 Time when clock stopped
time interval, t, for heating 6:30:22-6:25:00=5.22seconds The difference in time
starting temperature 4 °C=277k assumed from water being in

the refrigerator overnight

finishing temperature 100 °C=373k temperature when the water


temperature change, ΔT 373k-277k=96k Difference in temperature highest and lowest
electrical energy supplied,

E = P × t

2.1 X5.22=10.962kws electrical energy supplied to the water in the kettle
specific heat capacity of


c= q/mT

10.962kws / (1.5kg x96k)

=0.076125 kws/kg/k

=0.076 kws/kg/k

specific heat capacity of





4    a) (i) At given temperature, T, the photon energy, Eph, at which the maximum intensity of light occurs is given by:


=hcT / b

Where, h is the Planck constant, c is the speed of light and b is a constant called Wien’s displacement constant.



b=  h c T  / inputting SI units

=  h ( kg / s)  c (m/s) T( k)   /(kws)



b=h c T  /   meter kelvin






ii) =hf= hcT / b


hf= hcT / b,  dividing both sides by  h


f= cT  / b





Stars spend most of their life on the main sequence. Main sequence stars are those fusing hydrogen into helium in their core.

The most massive main sequence stars are most luminous while least massive are least luminous. sThe more massive the star is, the faster it goes through its main sequence. A star with less than 0.1 of the mass of the sun will continue to shrink but will never get hot enough for nuclear fusion to begin. It will fade away to form a small red star before turning cold and dying Stars will therefore have shorter lifetimes.












Gradient = change in Y axis / change in X axis


= (0.26-0) /1-0= 0.26





Diffraction grating, sin ф = n λ /d


Making λ the subject of the formula;


λ= d sinф /n


From the graph, the gradient is obtained by dividing sinф to n



λ= d sinф /n         but  d=307mm for blue light  and    sinф /n=0.26


λ= d sinф /n  = 307 X  0.26mm


= 79.82mm










4 d.




The points involved are ( 0,  5 x ) and  (A, 6.2 x), gradient =2.3 x


Grad= change in y axis / change in x axis



(6.2 x  -5 x) / ( x-0)= 2.3 x


A= (6.2 x  -5 x) /2.3 x


5.7 xm



Implementing a training process for new hires

Business Class Homework








The success of any business requires developing an efficient and effective training program of the employees. Training processes offer benefits to both the company and the employee only if they are well implemented. A good understanding of the company’s policies, goals, job functions and philosophies result in increased morale, motivation and employee productivity and consequently higher returns on investments (Biech, 2009). In the training process, business objectives and goals should be born in mind in the development and implementation stages.

The following stages will be adhered to. This is in reference to the project management body guide.

The project will basically three major areas and this will include:


These are the plans, the designs and the documents to be used in the process. They should be ready before any hiring process begins by the recruitment department of any business.

Tools and the techniques

Different companies will have various employee training requirements based on the nature of the works or instructions carried out. This will also dictate the type of tools and techniques to be used. These are the mechanisms to be applied to the inputs as stated above. These form the intermediary between the inputs and the outputs.


Every process should have the desired end product after some input has been applied and some mechanism or change effected on it. In the training of the new hire, output will be the expected level of understanding of the operations of the personal. This could include ability to operate machines effectively, ability to eliminate waste in the company operations or even improved customer handling (Biech, 2009).

The training process will be involve the following main areas

  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Monitoring and Controlling
  • Closing

The above processes will be affected by incorporating the following bodies of knowledge.  These are the management of the project Stakeholders Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resource, Communications, Risk, Procurement, and Integration.

The stake holders of the process include sponsors (senior leaders and the executives or corporate bodies), government representatives, company human resource management teams, quality assurance teams, trainers of various basic skills (Čambál, 2009).

The sponsor will throughout the project participate visibly and actively. They have to be in all the stages including the kick-off meetings and the project review ones. This helps build and sustain a momentum for change. They will also communicate directly to and with the employees to get their reviews and remarks. Sponsors will also help build and maintain a health bond or coalition in the training process (Project Management Institute, 2008).

The process will entail the following

  • Bringing other staffers in the training
  • Writing training manuals
  • Making the training fun
  • Teaching style and the skills
  • Testing for technique and attitude

The steps of implementation will be as follows:

Step 1

Implementing the training modules according to their importance

Step 2

Make use of trainers or employees who are professional. The interaction of the trainer and the new employee will be of utmost importance.

Step 3

Use tools of multi-media. These include slide-shows videos, white boards and written material. Games and role playing may be included to involve the new employees.

Step 4

Develop employee feedback to gauge effectiveness of the training.

Step 5

Adopting or making the training to form part of every new hire orientation.


Biech, E. (2009). 10 steps to successful training. Alexandria, Va: ASTD Press.

Čambál, M. (2009). Long-term employee training as a basic prerequisite for the development of an optimal corporate culture. Köthen: Hochsch.

Project Management Institute. (2008). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK Guide). Newtown Square, Pa: Project Management Institute.


Simple Harmonic Motion with a Pendulum


The ultimate goal of this lab is to determine the acceleration due to gravity by finding the period of oscillation for several simple pendulums. This can be done by accurately measuring the length of the pendulum as well as the time it takes for ten complete cycles. The formula used is
T = 2 * pi * square root (L / g),
where T is measured in seconds and L is measured in meters. Repetition is the key to reducing the effect of error in any experiment such as this. To this end, seven different pendulum lengths are considered and three measurements of the aforementioned ten cycles are conducted for each length. A graph is constructed, the slope of which is used to estimate g.



In order to arrive at the equation used in this experiment, we need to start with Newton’s Second Law. This states that the net force on an object is equal to the product of its mass and acceleration. If a pendulum is displaced from its equilibrium position by an angle theta, then the acceleration of the pendulum will be perpendicular to the arm of the pendulum. From the geometry of the situation, we see that this allows us to write
F = m * a                                             Newton’s Second Law
F = m * g * sin (theta)                         Gravity is responsible for the motion
F = m * g * theta                                 Small angle approximation
F = m * g * (x / L)                                Definition of angular displacement
F = m * x * omega2                             Force is radial.
From this we see that the angular frequency is given by
omega = square root (g / L)
which leads to our expression for the period
omega = 2 * pi / period
period = 2 * pi / omega
T = 2 * pi * square root (L / g).
Rearranging this equation gives us an expression for the acceleration due to gravity
g = 4 * pi2 * L / T2.

On the following page is the data collected and calculated for this experiment. Each pendulum length is given along with the time measured for the three trials discussed above.

Length Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 Average Time Period Period2
0.9 18.81 18.66 18.15 18.54 1.854 3.437
0.6 14.97 15.16 15.22 15.12 1.512 2.285
0.5 13.72 14 14 13.91 1.391 1.934
0.4 12.75 12.38 12.63 12.59 1.259 1.584
0.3 10.97 10.96 10.97 10.97 1.097 1.203
0.2 8.53 9.06 8.81 8.80 0.880 0.774
0.1 7.03 6.94 6.91 6.96 0.696 0.484


The next step is to construct a graph of this data with length on the horizontal axis and period squared on the vertical axis. Excel is used to generate the best fit line between the points and calculate the slope. The slope can be seen in the equation for the regression line,

and has a value of 3.717. Adapting our previous equation, we find
g = 4 * pi2 / slope
g = 4 * pi2 / 3.717
g = 10.621 meters per second squared.

The percentage error in this experiment is found to be
(10.621 – 9.8) / 9.8 = 0.0838
or 8.38%. The percent error seems to be a little bit high, and is due to human error both in finding the length of the pendulum as well as the time required for ten oscillations. Part of this is due to the fact that some of the pendulum lengths are quite short. Ideally we should use considerably longer pendulums with much heavier weights. This would lead to a much smaller error in the pendulum length. Increasing the number of oscillations per measurement as well as the overall number of measurements per pendulum length would also reduce error.

While recording more oscillations per time interval is helpful, a point where increasing the number of oscillations further provides little if any benefit. In theory, 1000 measurements should produce a smaller error. There are other problems to consider with such lengthy processes, however. Ten oscillations are fairly easy to keep track of, while 1000 oscillations would be quite difficult. If you believe that 1000 oscillations have been executed, but in reality it has been 1004, then this introduces a new error. Another consideration is the total amount of time required to do the experiment in such a lengthy fashion. Is it worth increasing the time needed by a factor of 100 to get a couple percentage points lower in the error? Most likely the answer to this question will be no.